As part of a broader
project to assess major risk factors to health, the burden of disease
resulting from exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution was assessed.
Ambient air pollution results from emissions from industrial activity,
households, cars and trucks which are complex mixtures of air
pollutants, many of which are harmful to health. Of all of these
pollutants, fine particulate matter has the greatest effect on human
In high-income countries, urban outdoor air pollution ranks in the top
ten risk factors to health, and is the first environmental risk factors.
Brauer M, Amann M, Burnett RT, Cohen A, Dentener F, Ezzati M, et al.
Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease
attributable to outdoor air pollution. Environ Sci Technol.
2012;46(2):652-60. doi: 10.1021/es2025752.
Burnett RT, Pope A, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, et al. An
intgrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease
attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health
Perspect. 2014(Advance publication 7 February 2014).
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A
comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury
attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions,
1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
2010. The Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2224-60. doi: